1. Noun Endings
There are eight basic noun (or case) endings in Inuktitut.
Noun-Ø unmarked nouns
Noun-mi locative case: at, in, on singular -mi/plural -ni
Noun-mik accusative case: object of a singular -mik/plural-nik transitive verb
Noun-mit ablative case: from, than singular -mit/plural-nit
Noun-mut allative case: to, for, with singular -mut/plural-nut
Noun-(u)p genitive case: possessive, subject of a double pronominal
Noun-kkut translative case: through,
by (way of)
Noun-tut equative case: like, as, in the manner of
The noun endings and the verbal moods in Inuktitut do away with word/phrase order that necessitate strict English SVO word order.
The noun declensions roll out this way:
An unmarked noun serves as a subject of an intransitive verb, or verb phrases with single-pronominal endings:
For single-pronominal endings (whether singular, dual or plural):
una inuk-Ø tikirataaqtuq umiakkut 'this person arrived by boat’
ukuak inuuk- Ø tikirataaqtuuk umiakkut ‘these two (persons) just arrived by boat’
For double-pronominal endings (again, whether singular, dual or plural):
The locative case denotes where something is located in space or time: in, on, or at.
8:30-mi iqqanaijariaqpaktuq ‘s/he goes to work at 8:30
uqalimaagarnik ajjaqsijutit ‘you are carrying books’
marruungnik nattilauqtuq ‘s/he caught two seals’
The ablative case denotes a direction ‘from’ spatially or temporally, or as a comparative.
ullaamit unnumut angunasusuut ‘from dawn to dusk they’re out hunting’
Iqalungnit tikilauqtuq ‘s/he arrived from Iqaluit’
The allative case denotes direction ‘to/towards’ spatially or temporally, or the recipient, or instrument of an action.
Iglulingmut aullarniaqtunga ‘I will be travelling to Iglulik shortly’
The primary function of the translative case denotes ‘going through’ something―whether material substance, living beings, natural or psychological phenomena.
sikukkut ingirrajut ‘they are travelling on the sea ice’
the manner of Inuit
This is an excerpt from The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Underline the case endings that you recognize.
Leon Werth-mutAsajaukainnarumavunga surusirnut uuvinga uqalimaagarmik
uqalimaarniaqtunut taanna turaaqtigumagakku innauliqtumut.
Pijjutiqattiaqpungali taapsuminga: silarjualimaami piqannirilaarigakku.
-hint: there should be six instances of case endings
Insert the right case ending for these phrases.
‘Johnny’s’ Jaani___ ‘I see a dog’ qimmir___ takujunga
‘I see (many) dogs’ qimmir___ takujunga