Tuesday, 4 December 2018

2 Inuktitut Grammar: a sketch


2. Verb Moods
Declarative Mood            Verb-junga/-jutit/-juq
The declarative mood is a pronominal ending denoting that the verb phrase is a statement. Here is a verb table indicating single-pronominal person and number.
Declarative                                         singular                        duel                            plural

1st person – ‘I am…’                       -junga/-tunga               -juguk/-tuguk            -jugut/tugut

2nd person – ‘you are…’                -jutit/-tutit                   -jusik/-tusik                -jusi/-tusi

3rd person – ‘s/he/it is…’              -juq/-tuq                        -juuk/-tuuk               -jut/-tut
The -junga form is used when the stem ends in a vowel (taku- ‘to see’)
takujunga inungmik                        ‘I see a person’

takujutit tulugarnik                         ‘you see some ravens’

takujuq iglunik                                  ‘he sees some houses’
The -tunga form is used when the stem ends in a consonant (tusaq- ‘to hear’)
tusaqtunga inngiqtumik                                ‘I hear someone singing’
tusaqtusik kutuktumik                                  ‘you (two) hear water dripping’
tusaqtut qiluktunik                          ‘they (many) hear dogs barking’
The declarative mood may affix to most verb roots and verb stems including those that denote tense.
ani-  ‘to exit’
anijuguk                                               ‘we (two) exit’ (present)

aniniaqtusi                                          ‘you (two) will leave/go out’ (momently)
anilaaqtut                                            ‘they (many) will exit’ (tomorrow)
anirataaqtuuk                                    ‘they (two) just left’ (momently)
anilauqtunga                                      ‘I went out’ (last night)
anilauqsimajusik                               ‘you (two) have gone out’ (past perfect)
-Some notes on the affixes:               -niaq-                    ‘imminent future’

                                                                -laaq-                    ‘indefinite future’

                                                                -rataaq-                ‘near/recent past’

                                                                -qau-                     ‘past tense’ (for describing events
                                                                                              of the  same day)

                                                                -lauq-                    ‘indefinite past’

                                                                -lauqsima-           ‘past perfect’

                                                                -sima-                   ‘perfect tense’
The future and past tenses are marked but the present tense is not.
The negative (-nngit-) normally precedes the pronominal endings even in cases where past tense is marked.
For example,
takunngittunga                                 ‘I do not see’
tusalaunngittuq                                ‘he has not heard’
anirataanngittugut                          ‘we (many) did not exit’
2 Exercises
2a

Insert the right pronominal endings to these phrases:
isirniaq________                            ‘I will enter (momently)’
anilaunngit________ suli             ‘he has not gone out yet’
taku________                                  ‘you (two) see’
niri________                                    ‘they (many) are eating’

aippariik________                          ‘we (two) are a couple’

niri__________________             ‘they (many) did not eat (indefinite past)’
aullaq________________            ‘he is/has gone away’
tusaq_________________          ‘she did not hear’
ani__________ suli                        ‘you (many) have not exited yet’

 2b

Translate the following statements using the word list and the declarative mood table. Refer back to noun case endings for the right case endings. Remember that pronouns attach to verbs. Also, not all noun phrases require case endings to be grammatical.
tikit                        ‘to arrive’                            -niaqliq-               ‘imminent future’

taku                       ‘to see’                                 -laaq-                    ‘indefinite future

tusaq                     ‘to hear’                               -rataaq-                ‘near/recent past’

aullaq                    ‘to leave/travel’                  -lauq-                    ‘indefinite past’

mit-                        ‘to land’
nukappiaq           ‘boy’

niviaqsiaq            ‘girl’

Iqaluit                   ‘place name’

Iglulik                    ‘place name’

aippariik               ‘a couple’

qitunngaliik         ‘they (two) have a child’

qangatasuuq      ‘airplane’
‘we (many) will land in (to) Iqaluit momently’     __________________________________________

‘they (two) see a boy’                                              __________________________________________

‘I am leaving for Iglulik’                                           __________________________________________

 ‘the couple have a girl child’                                 __________________________________________

‘from Iqaluit to Iglulik by plane’                            __________________________________________
‘the couple just left for Iglulik'                              __________________________________________
‘you (two) will leave for Iqaluit (a week from    __________________________________________
now)’

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